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Teachers Notes
Sugested Answers
Suggested answers for the on-line questions are provided below. To allow for differentiation, worksheets are provided at Standard Grade Foundation / Access 3 levels.

Source 1A

1. Useful because:
Primary source taken at the time of poor housing in Scotland
Shows narrow close, open sewer, lack of sunlight
Photograph showing actual conditions

Source 1B

1. 1254 families lived in 55 tenements
2. 5000 persons lived in tenemnets
3. 33 privies were provided
4. 1 privie to 150 people
5. They were in a scandalous condition, quite unfit for decency. They were wretched and in a filthy condition.

Source 1C

Bed Chair1 
Kitchen bed 2
First bed22
Second bed 2
One bed4 

Source 1D

1. There was scarcely any furniture. Often a bed without bedding. Very little of any kind kitchen or of useful utensils. Living in deepest poverty.
2. He did not like the smell of the sewage. The atmosphere was so close and foetid he wanted to get fresh air.

Source 1E

1.Manure heap almost blocked the entrance

2. Inspectors discovered a smell of ammonia; a feeling of sinking into manure; it was so dark they could not see anything.
3. Cows occupied two-thirds of available space.
4. There was a hole in roof above fire. A wooden plank resting on stones. No bed or bedding. One of cows had a cough. It was extremely dark.

Source 1F

1 Agrees with A6 as there is a 6 foot pile of manure blocking entrance. No windows in picture so dark inside.

Source 2A

1. The Board of Health thought that the four areas were cleanliness, dress, intemperance, diet.
CleanlinessFrequently wash with soap and water. Wash clothes and bedclothes. Keep houses well aired and remove filth.
DressWarm clothing with inner garments of flannel and worsted stockings should be worn. Wet should be avoided. Keep feet dry.
IntemperanceAvoid use of intoxicating liquid as it is hurtful.
DietAvoid raw vegetables Eat a nourishing diet and take regular exercise.

3. Symptoms are giddiness, great languor and looseness in the bowels
4. Board recommends mixing mustard powder, salt and lukewarm water. Patient should swallow this until they vomit. Should be wrapped in hot blankets.

Source 2B

1. Erysipelas, Scarlet Fever and Diphtheria were problem diseases in Melrose district in 1894.
2. According to the source, waste (sewage) connected to the drain, unventilated soil pipe and lack of ventilation connected poor housing to disease.

Source 3A

1. The source is useful because:
Primary source, taken around 1890 at the time of polluted cities
Photograph which actually shows sewage in burn
Shows children playing near the burn
Limited as it does not show disease.

Source 3B

1. Cartoon shows smoke pouring from lots of factory and house chimneys. It is difficult to make out the city. The caption reads that this is a "clear day" at St Rollox.

Source 3C

1. She was concerned about the smell which was offensive. It was very bad in the house. She had to block the keyhole and try to stop the smoke getting in below the door.
2. She had a headache, sore breasts and a cough.
3. Everything in the garden was blackened and had to be washed e.g. clothes and vegetables. Boiling vegetables gave off a black scum.

Source 4A

1. The Act lead to improvements in the health of people in Scottish towns as it rgulated the police of towns and populous places. It allowed towns to set up lighting, cleansing, paving and draining. They could supply water and promote public health.

Source 4B

1. Local authorities should be responsible.
2. Refuse should be removed once a week
3. Local authorities
4. They have drainage works and a supply of water in common.
5. Useful because:
Primary source written at time of improvements to public health
Written by a Medical Officer of Health and an expert in this area
An official report therefore likely to be accurate
Provides details of the improvements and suggests action
Limited because the source only deals with Forfar
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